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Home CCTV systems
Rapid advances in technology have lead to a dynamic growth in CCTV systems that offer ever greater potential at an increasingly lower cost. As a consequence, their use in single-family homes is on the rise. They have several advantages. To begin with, seeing that a CCTV system is in place, a potential burglar will think twice before entering the property. In addition, when the system is connected to the Internet, CCTV footage can be accessed from anywhere in the world via a smartphone, a special PC app, or a web browser.
What equipment should you choose?
Users increasingly opt for IP systems on account of their greater potential, better interference resistance, and convenient installation. Importantly, their price is also going down.
IP cameras
Until recently, FullHD cameras (2MP -1080p) can be said to have been the golden standard in CCTV systems. Today, the trend has changed a little; users increasingly choose 4 MP cameras, which produce better detail and deliver enhanced image quality. Models with a 2.8 mm fixed lens have a viewing angle of c. 100°, which means that full coverage of large areas can be ensured with a smaller number of cameras. Cameras with a zoom lens, on the other hand, allow to zoom in on the scene from a greater distance and at a smaller angle without compromising image quality. For instance, a 4MP camera with a 2.8-12 mm lens will have a viewing angle of, respectively, 98° - 28°. Cameras should be distributed in such a way as to cover all key areas of interest. For single-family homes, a good and economical solution would be one of the EasyIP Lite cameras. The image quality achieved by models with the same resolution, however, may vary. If you need a more professional device, e.g. with a better housing, intelligent analysis functions, higher sensitivity, or greater resolution, go to Characteristics of Hikvision IP cameras from the budget line, where you will find a comparison of popular camera series.
IP NVRs
A very important issue to consider when choosing an NVR is the max. number of cameras that will be connected within the system, not only at the outset, but also during potential expansion, so as to avoid the need to replace or add a new NVR in the future. Another key parameter concerns the maximum supported camera resolution. You should also consider how long you wish to store your footage and decide on the preferred recording mode (continuous recording, motion detection recording, event-triggered recording, etc.) Using camera resolution, frame rate, and video compression data, you can easily estimate the disk space you will need and, by the same token, choose an NVR to support the necessary number of adequate HDDs. A good solution for a single-family home would be one of the K-series IP NVRs (the most popular choices in this series include 4- and 8-channel models)
HDDs
Ideally, CCTV systems should be based on HDDs designed for continuous 24/7 operation. In order to choose the best HDD to ensure the required storage time, you can fall back on Hikvision's Storage and Network Calculator. The software will also calculate the necessary bandwidth for a given number of cameras (channels). It supports several resolutions (from CIF (352x288p) to 12 MP (4000x3000p)) and compression methods: H.265+, H.265, H.264+, H.264.
Using the Storage and Network Calculator. For the selected number of cameras and encoding parameters, a 14-day retention period will require 6 TB of hard disk space.
First, select the "PAL" color coding system. Then, in the "Channel Number" field, specify the number of cameras to be added to the NVR, as well as your preferred encoding, resolution, frame rate, and scene complexity parameters. The bit rate will then be adjusted automatically. The cameras can be added one by one with individual parameters, or as a group with the same settings. Once the parameters have been set, you will be able to use three tabs: "Space Given", "Time Given", and "Bandwidth". When you enter the available HDD space and define the required data retention time per day in the "Space Given" tab, the calculator will display the number of days during which the footage will be stored. Conversely, in the "Time Given" tab, you can specify the time during which you wish to store the footage and get an estimate of the required disk space. Last but not least, the "Bandwidth" tab will display information on the required bandwidth for any given number of channels.

Cables and power supply
The main communication medium used in IP CCTV systems is an indoor or outdoor UTP cable, depending on the installation site. Communication and power supply usually rely on external or built-in PoE switches. When choosing a switch, pay attention to the power supply standard (802.3af or 802.3at) supported by your cameras and the total power budget. Using devices compliant with the standard guarantees correct communication with and power supply to terminal devices over a distance of up to 100 m (in some cases, the range can be increased to 250-300 m, but transmission speed will then drop to 10 Mbps). You can also use switches that do not support the PoE standard and power your devices locally, but this method is less convenient and less common.
Is there a universal CCTV scheme?
Not really. Each case needs to be approached individually, depending on building specifications, specific requirements (should the building be monitored only outside or also inside?), surveillance area, the required quality at a given distance and viewing angle, etc. However, the figures below show two possible approaches to the arrangement of cameras and their coverage in a single-family home CCTV system.
Incomplete CCTV coverage
The house below is fitted with four 4 MP cameras. As shown in the picture, their distribution allows to ensure almost complete coverage of the area, except a small dead zone right under the cameras. In this configuration, all cameras face the same way, which makes face recognition difficult if the person in question moves in one direction.
PoE Switch: ULTIPOWER PRO0064afat (65W, 6xRJ45 incl. 4xPoE 802.3af/at, PoE Auto Check)4K IP NVR: Hikvision DS-7604NI-K1(B) (4ch, 40Mbps, 1xSATA, VGA, HDMI, H.265/H.264)HDD Western Digital PURPLE WD20PURZ 2TB (3.5Wireless Dual-band Gigabit Router: TP-Link Archer C6 AC1200 (4x10/100/1000 Mbps)Compact IP Camera: Hikvision DS-2CD1043G0-I (4MP, 2.8mm, 0.028 lx, IR up to 30m, H.265/H.264)Junction Box DS-1280ZJ-XS (for Hikvision ceiling and compact cameras)22
If you use four cameras with a resolution of 4 MP (2560 x 1440p), a continuous 24/7 recording mode at 25 fps, H.265 video compression, and medium scene complexity, the footage will be stored on a 2 TB HDD for c. 11 days.

Full CCTV coverage
The house below is fitted with eight 4 MP cameras. As shown in the picture, their distribution allows to ensure the full coverage of the area, without any dead zones, and protects the building from all directions.
Compact IP Camera: Hikvision DS-2CD1043G0-I (4MP, 2.8mm, 0.028 lx, IR up to 30m, H.265/H.264)Junction Box DS-1280ZJ-XS (for Hikvision ceiling and compact cameras)4K IP NVR: Hikvision DS-7608NI-K2 (8ch, 80Mbps, 2xSATA, Alarm IN/OUT, VGA, HDMI, H.265/H.264)22PoE Switch: ULTIPOWER PRO0208afat (120W, 10xRJ45, 8xPoE 802.3af/at, PoE Auto Check)HDD Western Digital PURPLE WD40PURZ 4TB (3.5
If you use eight cameras with a resolution of 4 MP (2560 x 1440p), a continuous 24/7 recording mode at 25 fps, H.265 video compression, and medium scene complexity, the footage will be stored on a 4 TB HDD for c. 11 days.

 
 
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