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TV & SAT TV

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Professional multiswitch systems
Multiswitch installations allow to distribute satellite and terrestrial programs to many users, being one of the forms of satellite master antenna TV systems (SMATV). Community systems are generally more reliable and ensure better quality, due to better, professional equipment. It starts from the satellite dish - at least 110cm, ensuring high gain and insensitivity to weather conditions.
Community installation eliminates individual dishes and antennas on roof, facades and balconies, improving aesthetics of the building.
Multiswitch installations may be divided according to the number of outlets/wall plates:
  • small - up to 30 outlets
  • medium and large - above 30 outlets
Small installations can be done without a design, just according to example installation diagrams, e.g. Reception of digital satellite platform throughout the house using only one smart card (the important requirement - the longest route between the LNB and outlet cannot exceed 70 m). In the case of longer distances it will be needed a design including attenuation balance, similarly to larger installations.
Large multiswitch systems
As mentioned above, larger (or "longer") systems require to make appropriate designs. Such design should guarantee - in any outlet - minimum 45 dBuV level for any transponder (so it has to include the values of attenuation of all elements of the distribution network). The design has to be based on the plan of the building (division into subnetworks according to the layout of the staircases).
Amplificator pt. multiswitch-uri cu 9-intrări: Terra SA-901Splitter satelit Terra SS-504Tap satelit Terra SS-510Amplificator pt. multiswitch-uri cu 9-intrări: Terra SA-911Multiswitch cascadabil TERRA MS-951 (9-intrări, 4-ieşiri)Multiswitch TERRA MS-952 (2 sateliţi, 4 ieşiri)Alimentator 18VDC/1.6A (pentru multiswitchuri Terra MS/MSV)
Diagram of multiswitch installation divided into subnetworks

Components of multiswitch installation
  • Satellite antennas (dishes)
Multiswitch systems require comparatively large satellite dishes, at least 110cm, ensuring high gain and insensitivity to weather conditions, so a good C/N ratio. Distribution of the signals in the installation will only deteriorate the ratio. To guarantee proper levels in the most distant outlets, the initial value has to be as high as possible - thanks to large dish. Large dishes have to be mounted on adequate supports - e.g. E8714.
  • LNBs
In multiswitch systems there are only used QUATRO LNBs. They cannot be mixed up with QUAD LNBs which are used for direct connection to four sat receivers.
  • Terrestrial signals
In one-family houses there can be used indoor amplifier CA-215 R90461, or outdoor device, mounted directly on the antenna mast - AM-417 R903717. There should be preferred mast amplifiers which ensure better noise parameters. There are recommended brand-name devices guarantying good parameters, quality and stability of the parameters, both in changeable environment (especially mast amplifiers) and during longer exploitation (long-term stability).
In the case of large systems, with more than 30 outlets, there are needed channel amplifiers that equalize individual signals. It is also connected with the problem of maximum output level of RF amplifiers. On the one hand there are required high signal levels at the input of the installation, on the other hand it is needed to reduce signal levels in the case of using many channels, beginning with the channel of the highest level. The weakest channels may be difficult to receive.
In the case of large installations (above 150 outlets) there are needed channel converters for terrestrial broadcasts - to eliminate possible interferences from the transmitters.
  • Cabling
Multiswitch systems are multi-cable installations, with different signals in each cable and sections up to tens of meters. There is a risk of crosstalk effects that would deteriorate the performance of the system (increase of BER) and the consequences, up to lack of reception.
To avoid crosstalk between coaxial cables, they should fulfill at least requirements for A class+. DIPOL offers appropriate cables, from TRISET family.
The risk of using cheap, low quality cables is too big - potential necessity of exchanging the cabling, even at the stage of starting up the system.
Cablu coaxial satelit trishield TRISET-113 1.13/4.8/6.8 [1m]
TRISET-113 coaxial cable
The TRISET family includes:

E1015 TRISET-113 - for connecting multiswitch outputs with subscribers' outlets.
Top-quality RF distribution cable. The quality has been confirmed by "Product of the Year" prize at SatKrak 2007 trade fair. Main features: low attenuation, very good screening efficiency, great flexibility allowing easy installation (including connection to outlets).
E1017 TRISET-113 PE GEL-FILLED for connecting antennas/LNBs with indoor devices/multiswitches. The sheath of the cable (polyethylene - PE) is resistant to UV radiation. The gel between the sheath and the braid protects the inner part against penetration of humidity/water.
E1025 TRISET-11 PE GEL-FILLED - for linking subnetworks, suitable for building very extensive systems. In comparison with TRISET-113 - lower attenuation, but the same excellent screening efficiency (A+). PE sheath and gel-filled - it can be laid directly in the ground, without any additional protection.
E1027 TRISET-11 HF i E1019 TRISET-113 HF (Halogen Free) - due to HF (halogen free) technology, the cable is suitable for making installations in schools, hospitals etc. where fire regulations require such cabling.

  • Connectors
The connectors used in multiswitch installations make up a small part of the overall costs, but are very important for signal quality, reliability of the system, and - last but not least - they condition labor consumption during the installation work. Improper or low-quality connectors may reduce signal levels and expose the system to internal (from other polarizations) and external interferences. It happens that most of the time is waisted looking for bad connections. Thus the importance of the proper choice.

An important parameter of every RF connector is VSWR. In satellite band it shouldn't be higher than 1.5 dB. Another crucial parameter, especially significant in multiswitch systems, is screening efficiency. For bran-name connectors the value is higher than 70 dB. For professional purposes there are usually used crimped connectors - quicker to mount, better shielded, more precise and stable.
DIPOL offers professional F connectors of Platinum series suitable for indoor and outdoor applications, with distribution and trunk cables, ensuring screening efficiency over 100 dB. The tool indispensable for crimping the connectors is TR-255 E80077.
For connecting cascadable multiswitches there are used "quick" F-plug/F-plug connectors - E8242.

  • Multiswitches
In the market there are many types of multiswitches. They may be classified by various criteria, e.g.:
  • cascadable or end-of-line
  • active or passive terrestrial path
  • quality level (technical parameters)
Cascadable multiswitches are dedicated for use in larger buildings, where they can be deployed on individual floors. It simplifies the cabling and maintenance of the system - in the case of a failure it is enough to replace the "local" multiswitch.
Cascadable multiswitches allow to extend the installation (on the condition that there is a power margin). But it is also very important to do the cabling the way that will ensure spare cables for prospective subscribers.
View of multiswitch cascade (MS-951/MS-952)
Among end-of-line multiswitches we offer:
  • multiswitches for individual installations (mostly one-family houses), e.g. Signal
  • multiswitches for SMATV systems for up to 80 outlets, from TERRA: MSR-9XX, MSR-5XX
  • multiswitches for SMATV systems for up to 80 outlets, from TERRA:MSV-9XX, MSV-5XX .
End-of-line multiswitch - MSR-916
Multiswitches with active terrestrial path are equipped with transistor amplifiers with limited dynamic range. So the terrestrial signals cannot exceed certain limits, otherwise they will deteriorate satellite signals as well. The increased error rate may even block reception.The maximum input level strongly depends on the class of the equipment. Some multiswitches, e.g. Signal cannot operate with signals stronger than 80 dBuV. High quality multiswitches allow terrestrial signals over 96 dBuV. This group includes:
Another important parameter describing quality of a multiswitch is isolation between inputs and between outputs. Crosstalk effects between the lines of the trunk on both sides (inputs and outputs) increase error rate and limit size of the system (larger number of outputs intensifies crosstalk).
High quality multiswitches ensure at least 30 dB isolation. Cheap multiswitches with inadequate isolation can prevent the user from receiving some programs, e.g. with 8PSK modulation that requires better signal quality than QPSK.
  • Outlets
In multiswitch systems there are only used terminal outlets. Multiswitches are directly controlled from the satellite receivers - one multiswitch output can be connected only to one receiver.
There are available the following outlets:
  • R694100 - standard subscriber outlet used in multiswitch systems. It provides FM and TV signals, and satellite signal for one receiver.
  • R694043 - multimedia outlet, also providing LAN and phone connection (via UTP/FTP cable).
  • R694140 - double sat outlet (the second path is sometimes used for return channel - usually RF signal from modulator). In both cases there are needed two coaxial cables.
  • R62195 standard subscriber outlet used in multiswitch systems from SATEL.
Network topology
Choosing topology of the network, one should consider:
  • number of staicases
  • number of apartments in one staircase
  • number of signals for one apartment
The most flexible solution is provided by bus topology - in every apartment there is available the whole bus (the complete set of signals) rather than one or more lines.
In this case it is only needed to mount appropriate multiswitch (in the apartment). All decisions are made by the residents - about the number of received satellites and the number of outlets.

Multiswitch: Terra MS-554 (5-interior, 4-exterior)Tap satelit Terra SS-510Tap satelit Terra SS-510Tap satelit Terra SS-510Tap satelit Terra SS-510Cablu Coaxial RG11 Triset-11 PE 1.65/7.2/10 (izolat cu gel) [100m]Cablu UTP 24 AWG NETSET Cat5e de interior [1m]Cablu coaxial cu alimentare CAMSET (RG59 + 2x0.5) [100m]Multiswitch TERRA MS-952 (2 sateliţi, 4 ieşiri)Priza tv/satelit/RJ-45/RJ-11 Signal
Multiswitch installation - bus topology - every subscriber has access to a complete set of signals

Equally interesting topology is based on two independent subnetworks, each with one LNB, and independent terrestrial TV system. To every subscriber there are provided at least three TRISET-113 E1015 cables. It enables the subscribers to choose the signals they want. For example, they may be two signals from Hotbird ans terrestrial TV, or one signal from Hotbird and one signal from Astra (via DiSEqC switch), or terrestrial signal alone.
Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch: Terra MS-554 (5-interior, 4-exterior)Tap 8-căi: Signal O-8-20dB (5-1000MHz)Tap 8-căi: Signal O-8-18dB (5-1000 MHz)Rezistenta terminala 75 ohm in mufa-F
The user has access to terrestrial broadcasts and satellite programs from Astra and Hotbird

Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch: Terra MS-554 (5-interior, 4-exterior)Tap 8-căi: Signal O-8-20dB (5-1000MHz)Tap 8-căi: Signal O-8-18dB (5-1000 MHz)Rezistenta terminala 75 ohm in mufa-F
The user can watch terrestrial TV and connect two independent signals from Hotbird (e.g. to double tuner PVR)

There are possible other topologies that are the result of division into subnetworks according to the layout of the staircases. The multiswitches are placed in the staircases (in one place), or on each floor.
The decision on centralized or distributed structure of the system is due to economic reasons rather than technical.
One cascade of multiswitches should be used only in the case of "vertical" structure of the building. Lack of subnetworks, all the equipment in one big cascade - can be the reason of technical problems and a higher cost of the system (necessity of additional amplifiers).
LNB Quatro Golden Media 0.1 dBMultiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Amplificator satelit Terra SA 51 (pt. multiswitch 5 intrări)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Amplificator satelit Terra SA 511 (pt. multiswitch 5 intrări)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch: Terra MS-554 (5-interior, 4-exterior)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)
Multiswitch system without subnetworks

Generally, in multi-storey buildings there should be used subnetworks:
Tap satelit Terra SS-510Amplificator satelit Terra SA 51 (pt. multiswitch 5 intrări)Multiswitch cascadabil: Terra MS-553 (5-intrari, 4-iesiri)Multiswitch: Terra MS-554 (5-interior, 4-exterior)
Partitioning the system into subnetworks

The way of division depends on many factors, also describing functionality of the network. The main is how many satellite signals (outlets) are needed in individual apartments. Modern satellite receivers are equipped with two tuners that require two independent satellite signals (from separate multiswitch outputs). No splitters or pass-through outlets can be used.
Because of cheaper and cheaper satellite receivers and attractive offer (HD programs) the demand for satellite signals will probably increase. It should be planned in advance when designing and building SMATV system.

Multiswitch systems - design guidelines
The design has to determine the number of splitters and taps (SS-5xx), and multiswitch amplifiers. The amplifiers have to compensate attenuation of passive elements of the network, including the cabling.
In the subscriber's outlet there should be the following signal levels:
Terrestrial TV- 62dBuV to 82dBuV
SAT TV- 45dBuV to 85dBuV
Terra multiswitches
Cascadable MS series
    MS-952 R70952 - end-of-line multiswitch, for two LNBsMS-951 R70951 - cascade multiswitch, for two LNBsMS-554 R70554 - end-of-line multiswitch, for one LNBMS-553 R70553 - cascade multiswitch, for one LNB
End-of-line, for one LNB, with power supply
  • MSR-504 R70604 - four outputs
  • MSR-508 R70608 - eight outputs
  • MSR-512 R70612 - twelve outputs
  • MSR-516 R70616 - sixteen outputs
  • MSR-524 R70624 - twenty four outputs
  • MSR-532 R70632 - thirty two outputs
End-of-line, for two LNBs, with power supply
  • MSR-908 R70808 - eight outputs
  • MSR-912 R70812 - twelve outputs
  • MSR-916 R70816 - sixteen outputs
End-of line, for one LNB, without power supply
  • MSV-504 R70704 - four outlets
  • MSV-508 R70708 - eight outputs
  • MSV-512 R70712 - twelve outputs
  • MSV-516 R70716 - sixteen outputs
  • MSV-524 R70724 - twenty four outputs
  • MSV-532 R70732 - thirty two outputs
Satellite splitters and taps for multiswitch systems
  • SS-504 R70515 - symmetrical splitting (4 dB) of signals from one QUATRO LNB and terrestrial TV - into two 5-cable lines
  • SS-510 R70516 - 10 dB tap with 1.5 dB pass-through of signals from one QUATRO LNB and terrestrial TV
  • SS-515 R70517 - 15 dB tap with 1.5 dB pass-through of signals from one QUATRO LNB and terrestrial TV
  • SS-520 R70518 - 20 dB tap with 1 dB pass-through of signals from one QUATRO LNB and terrestrial TV
  • SS-904 R70515 - symmetrical splitting (4 dB) of signals from two QUATRO LNBs and terrestrial TV into two 9-cable lines
  • SS-910 R70516 - 10 dB tap with 1.5 dB pass-through of signals from two QUATRO and terrestrial TV
  • SS-915 R70517 - 15 dB tap with 1.2 dB pass-through of signals from two QUATRO LNBs and terrestrial TV
  • SS-920 R70518 - 20 dB tap with 1 dB pass-through of signals from two QUATRO LNBs and terrestrial TV
  • SSQ-508 R70520 - symmetrical splitting (8 dB) of signals from one QUATRO LNB and terrestrial TV into four 5-cable lines
  • SSQ-908 R70529 - symmetrical splitting (8 dB) of signals from two QUATRO LNBs and terrestrial TV into four 9-cable lines
Distribution amplifiers for cooperation with TERRA multiswitches:
  • SA-901 R70901 - amplifier with power supply, for 9-input multiswitches
  • SA-911 R70911 - amplifier without power supply (provided by SA-901), for 9-input multiswitches
  • SA-501 R70501 - amplifier with power supply, for 5-input multiswitches
  • SA-511 R70511 - amplifier without power supply (provided by SA-501), for 5-input multiswitches
Generally, in multiswitch systems there can be used any satellite receivers, from various manufacturers. To ensure access to all (available in the system) satellites, the receiver has to generate DiSEqC signal. TERRA multiswitches make an exception - they also accept TONEBURST, a simpler form of DiSEqC.
More on choice of multiswitches here.
 
 
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